WELL PUMP REPAIRS AND REPLACEMENT by ASAP Irrigation and pump repairs please call us at 1-904-346-1266

Jacksonville       Duval County                 904-346-1266
St Augustine      St Johns County             904-824-7144
Orange Park       Clay County                   904-264-6444
Jacksonville Beaches    Duval County      904-246-3969
Fernandina          Nassau County               904-277-3040
Macclenny          Baker County                 904-259-5091
Palm Coast         Flagler County                386-439-5290
Daytona              Volusia County               386-253-4911
Serving all of Florida  and Georgia    at     904-346-1266

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Irrigation repairs

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Timer boxes

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all phases of irrigation repairs

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large water bill analysis

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shallow well installations

water meter replacement or new installation

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drip irrigation systems

winterization policy and follow up

sprinkler systems

farm irrigation systems



troubleshooting your irrigation system

inpection and maintenance contracts

monthly inspection services





zone valves

  • Irrigation System Repair
  • Sprinkler Repair
  • Irrigation InstallationGrowing and maintaining a beautiful lawn in Jacksonville requires a well-tuned irrigation or sprinkler system. Without one, you will spend hours each week dragging a hose around the yard. If you have a sprinkler system, but it is old or in need of repair, you will waste water and money, and still have a dried up or patchy yard. To maintain a pretty green lawn, you need a good irrigation system, in working order, and a top-notch maintenance company to call when trouble hits.

    What can go Wrong with Your Sprinkler System

    Irrigation systems are notoriously finicky and difficult to manage. From homeowner lawns to giant commercial irrigation systems, any number of things can happen that will derail the operation and necessitate irrigation system repair.

    Potential Problems

    • Popup spray heads cease to pop up
    • Rotary spray heads cease to rotate
    • Nozzles and small tubing clogs with dirt or other debris
    • Spray heads are run over with the lawnmower or kicked
    • A power failure re-sets the system incorrectly
    • A contractor cuts through a pipe
    • Spray heads spring leaks
    • Tubing becomes kinked
    • Valves leak
    • Filter screens become clogged



    We accept all major credit cards.  Visa, Mastercard, Discover and American Express.

    We service the following areas of northeast Florida: Jacksonville, Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, Ponte Vedra Beach, Fernandina, Amelia Island, Callahan, Yulee, Hillard, Macclenny, St George, St Marys, Kingsland, Orange Park, Middleburg, Green Cove Springs, Penny Farms, St Augustine, Hastings, Palatka, Keystone Heights, Starke, Lake City, Waldo, Baldwin, St Augustine Beach, Crescent Beach,  Palm Coast, Daytona, Holly Hill, Titusville, Daytona Shores, Ormond Beach, Bunnell, Deland, Orange City, Port Orange, Orlando, New Smyrna Beach, Sanford, Palm Valley, Fruitcove, Mandarin, Lawtey, St. Augustine Beach, Switzerland, Vilano Beach,  Marineland, Flagler Beach, Beverly Beach, Sanderson, and Glen St. Mary.





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    Serving the entire Jacksonville area including the following communities:

  • As the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States, Jacksonville is divided both formally and informally into a few large sections. Though most residents divide the city into Northside, Southside, Westside, and—increasingly over the past decade, Arlington—Jacksonville’s official website divides the city into six major sections:[1]

    Sections of Jacksonville

    • Greater Arlington, more commonly known to Jacksonville citizens simply as Arlington, is situated east and south of the St. Johns River and north of Beach Blvd.
    • North Jacksonville is officially designated by the city website as everything north of the St. Johns & Trout Rivers and east of US 1. Much of this area is known by Jacksonville residents as the Northside, though much of what is called “Northside” does not fall within these boundaries, and much of what falls within these boundaries has not been traditionally known as “Northside”.
    • Northwest Jacksonville is located north of Interstate 10, south of the Trout River and surrounds the downtown section. The parts of this area between US Highway 1 and the Trout and St. John’s River is usually considered part of either the “Northside” or, alternately, Downtown. Much of this section is actually rural land, not easily classified as part of any section.
    • Southeast Jacksonville, almost universally known as Southside, refers to everything east of the St. Johns River and south of Beach Blvd.
    • Southwest Jacksonville makes up most of what is known in Jacksonville as the Westside, though parts of Northwest Jacksonville also are considered part of the “Westside”. It consists of everything west of the St. Johns River and south of Interstate 10.
    • The Urban Core, most of which is commonly known as Downtown, includes the south & north banks of the narrowest part of the St. Johns River east from the Fuller Warren Bridge and extending roughly 4 miles (6.4 km) north and east.

    With the rapid growth in the eastern part of Duval County, the Intracoastal/Beaches/Ponte Vedra area is viewed by many as a major section as well, but is not generally included in a Jacksonville list since they lie outside of the Jacksonville city limits. There is also a distinct part of the city known as “Eastside” which those unfamiliar with Jacksonville’s overall geography sometimes mistakenly regard as one of the major divisions of town, rather than the localized neighborhood which it is.

    Today, what distinguishes a “section” of Jacksonville from a “neighborhood” is primarily a matter of size and divisibility. However, definitions are imprecise, and sometimes not universally agreed upon.[2]

    Each of these sections not only encompasses a large area, but also, each is divided into many neighborhoods. Each of these neighborhoods, in turn, has its own identity.

    Each of these sections is divided into many neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods, such as Mandarin and LaVilla, had existed previously as independent towns or villages, prior to consolidation, and have their own histories.


    North Jacksonville


    The Sandalwood neighborhood began developing in the spring of 1960, midway between downtown Jacksonville and the beaches, or about 6 miles (9.7 km) from each, was advertised in 1960-61 as “On the Southside – halfway between business and pleasure!” The builder-developer, Pearce-Uible, was located at 3850 Beach Blvd.

    The original neighborhood was bordered by the then two-lane Atlantic Boulevard on the north, a mile of palmetto and scrub on the south before reaching Beachwood neighborhood and Beach Boulevard, the western part of the neighborhood was bordered by the less than two-lane dirt road named St. John’s Bluff, and the eastern border of the neighborhood was defined by a storm drainage ditch called the Sandalwood Canal. The original streets are named after mostly South Pacific islands and most of the streets are, from north to south, in alphabetical order. The original street names are Aloha Drive; Batavia Drive; Caledonia Drive; Delago Drive; Eniwetok Drive; Fiji Court; Hawaii Drive East; Hawaii Drive South; Indies Drive North; Indies Drive East; Indies Drive South; Java Drive; Kuralei Drive; Mindanao Drive (The main drag); Sandalwood Boulevard (Original main entrance road); Bahia Drive; Dulawan Drive; and Kusaie Drive.

    The were eight original home styles named as follows: Aloha; Bahama; Bikini; Caledonia; Del ray; Java; Polynesian; and Waikiki. Free airplane rides over Sandalwood were offered during the grand opening. The entrance and sales office located on Sandalwood Boulevard boasted a winding, palm lined street, and adjacent play area for the children. Homes were priced from $11,400 to $16,000, with monthly payments as low as $67. The original Sandalwood consisted of approximately 500 homes. The first families purchased homes in May and June 1960. Many of the first families were U.S. Navy families who were stationed at the Mayport base and others were employed by CSX railroad.

    In the late 1970s, additional construction began at the southern border by the Sofranko Homes company, nearly doubling the size of the neighborhood. Most of the original early 1960s families have moved away over the years, but a handful of the original families are still left from the early 1960s.

     Southeast Jacksonville

    Neighborhoods include Arrowhead, Avenues, Bayard, Baymeadows, Baymeadows Center, Beach Haven, Beauclerc, Bowden, Brackridge, Brierwood, Craven, Deercreek, Deerwood, Deerwood Center, Del Rio, Englewood, Goodbys Creek, Greenfield Manor, Greenland, Isle of Palms, Julington Creek, Kilarney Shores, Lakewood, Loretto, Mandarin, Mandarin Station, Miramar, Montclair, Pickwick Park, Pine Forrest, Royal Lakes, San Jose, San Jose Forrest, San Marco, Sans Pareil, Sans Souci, Secret Cove, South Riverside, Southpoint, Southwood, Spring Park, Sunbeam, Tiger Hole and Windy Hill.


    Bayard has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Bayard.


    Baymeadows is a relatively affluent neighborhood centered around Baymeadows Road. It is situated south of Arlington (specifically, south of J. Turner Butler Boulevard) and east of Mandarin. A center for white-collar employment, it is home to many corporate office parks, upscale apartment complexes and residential developments, two private golf courses, several shopping centers and a large shopping mall.  Deerwood and Hampton Glen and East Hampton and Reedy Branch Deercreek


    Lakewood, which lies in the area where San Jose Blvd. and University Blvd intersect, is a residential area with houses built in the 1950s. It has several churches, two shopping centers, and a plethora of streets named after major private colleges, such as Clemson, Cornell, Fordham, and Emory.


    Loretto is a distinct part of the greater Mandarin area, and sits between San Jose Boulevard to the west and Philips Highway to the east. It is bordered to the north by Interstate 295 and to the south by the county line. Loretto was formed by the Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine. In the days of Reconstruction, Loretto sprouted up next to the nuns’ convent, dormitory and school. It is on what became Old St. Augustine Road, the highway between Jacksonville and St. Augustine. According to Wayne Wood’s Jacksonville’s Architectural Heritage, the nuns were sent there to educate both the residents and newly freed slaves. The Catholic Church still owns the property on all four corners of the intersection of St. Augustine Road and Loretto/Greenland Roads. The Loretto area public schools always have been highly regarded; on the FCAT, they’re all rated A, B or C. The average price for homes that become available in Loretto is just under $200K. Many homes are built on some of the largest new construction lots in the area and there are a lot of dead-end streets and cul-de-sacs. Over the length of San Jose Boulevard, residents can find just about every merchant, service or restaurant available in the city. Loretto has a solid, hometown feel, with established neighborhoods, parks and nature areas nearby, making it the proverbial middle America.


    Mandarin has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Mandarin.

    [Help us with translations!

    Candidates for the 2010 steward elections are asked to submit their nominations by January 28. Nominate yourself.

    Mandarin, Jacksonville, Florida

    Mandarin is a neighborhood located in the southern most portion of Jacksonville, in Duval County, Florida, United States. It is located on the eastern banks of the St. Johns River, across from Orange Park. Mandarin was named after the Mandarin orange in 1830 by Calvin Reed, a prominent resident of the area .

    Once called “a tropical paradise” by author Harriett Beecher Stowe, the quaint area of Mandarin is marked by its history, ancient oak trees draped with Spanish moss, beautiful parks, marinas and more water views than any other area in Jacksonville. In the 1800s, Mandarin was a small farming village that shipped oranges, grapefruit, lemons and other fruits and vegetables to Jacksonville and points north on the steamships that traveled the St. Johns River. In 1864, the Union steamship, the Maple Leaf, hit a Confederate mine and sank just off Mandarin Point.

    While Mandarin now is just a small section of the City of Jacksonville, its natural beauty, parks and historic buildings draw visitors from around the world. Just a short drive south of Jacksonville’s city center, the community is bordered by Beauclerc to the north, Julington Creek to the south and St. John’s River to the west.


     Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Main article: Palmetto Leaves

    In 1867 the famous author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe bought a cottage here. For the next seventeen winters, she welcomed tourists debarking from the steamers making their way down the St. Johns River and charged them 75 cents each to meet her and admire her surroundings.

    Stowe, although best known for her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin about the cruelty of slavery, also wrote about Florida.

    She had promised her Boston publisher another novel, but was so taken with northeast Florida that she produced instead a series of sketches of the land and the people which she submitted in 1872 under the title Palmetto Leaves. Her second book did not outsell her first novel, but did have the effect of drawing rich and fashionable tourists to visit her.

    In Palmetto Leaves Stowe describes life in Florida in the latter half of the 19th century; “a tumble-down, wild, panicky kind of life—this general happy-go-luckiness which Florida inculcates.” Her idyllic sketches of picnicking, sailing, and river touring expeditions and simple stories of events and people in this tropical “winter summer” land became the first unsolicited promotional writing to interest northern tourists in Florida.[1]

    A small chapel is dedicated to Harriet Beecher Stowe in Mandarin.

     Famous Residents

    The late Allen Collins from the rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd resided some of his last years in Mandarin before he passed. Mandarin was also the location where Allen was involved in a car accident during 1986 that left him paralyzed from the waist down and his girlfriend dead.

     20th Century

    In 1968, the city of Jacksonville and most of Duval County formed a consolidated municipal unit. As part of this process, Mandarin ceased to exist as a political entity, and became part of the City of Jacksonville.

    In 1990, with the rapid growth of Mandarin, a new public high school was opened in the area. Several prominent citizens in Jacksonville urged that the new school be named Harriet Beecher Stowe High School, but the proposal did not receive widespread acceptance, and instead the school was simply named, Mandarin High School.


    Mandarin is located at 30°09′37″N 81°39′34″WCoordinates: 30°09′37″N 81°39′34″W (30.1603, -81.6594).[2] / 30.1603°N 81.6594°W / 30.1603; -81.6594 / 30.1603°N 81.6594°W / 30.1603; -81.6594


    1. ^ “Palmetto Leaves”. University Press of Florida. http://www.upf.com/Spring1999/stowe.html. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 
    2. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990″. United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

     External links

    San Marco

    San Marco is a relatively small and generally upscale neighborhood located south of Downtown and north of Mandarin. Due to large differences in property value, income distribution, and reported crime statistics in a relatively small area, San Marco is diverse. In one block, residences range from low cost, multi-family dwellings to sprawling riverside mansions. It is an area of historical and cultural significance in Jacksonville, and its inhabitants and proprietors identify strongly with their community.

    Known as a trendy area, the most identifying feature of San Marco is “the Square,” an artsy shopping, dining, and entertainment district; its galleries, restaurants, and boutiques are overwhelmingly independently owned, operated, and supported which lends to its vogue. Visitors of the Square are likely to see polite intermingling between young professionals, landed gentry, “scenesters,” and “starving artists.”

    Common landmarks are its large statue of three lions and the Art Deco styled San Marco Theater.


    Sunbeam is a relatively new neighborhood centered around Sunbeam Road which runs east/west between Philips Highway and San Jose Boulevard. It is situated south of Baymeadows Road, east of Mandarin and north of the Avenues Mall. The area includes the site of the former Sunbeam Sanitary Landfill which opened in 1972. The dump emitted objectionable odors, which discouraged development nearby. The landfill permit expired in 1986, and the facility stopped accepting garbage. After being covered with a 3-foot (0.91 m) deep cap, which prevents the elements from coming in and waste from coming out, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER) certified it closed on October 21, 1992. [3] With the odor problem resolved, development resumed in the middle 1990’s including subdivisions, apartment complexes, commercial buildings and the Community Hospice of Northeast Florida center. A golf course on and around the original landfill was planned and delayed for several years but construction finally began in late 2007 and projected to open in Fall, 2008. However, the financial meltdown delayed opening. At the end of 2009, the course was substantially complete but work on a clubhouse had not commenced.

    Southwest Jacksonville

    .[4]..[5]. Neighborhoods include Argyle, Avondale, Cedar Hills, Cedar Hills Estates, Chimney Lakes, Confederate Point, Duclay, Duclay Forest, Fairfax, Herlong, Hillcrest, Hyde Park, Jax Farms, Jacksonville Heights, Lakeshore, Maxville, McGirts Creek, Murray Hill, Normandy Manor, Normandy Village, Oak Hill, Ortega, Ortega Farms, Ortega Forest, Ortega Hills, Otis, Riverside, Rolling Hills, Settlers Landing, Sweetwater, Venetia, Wesconnett, Whitehouse, Yukon and West Jacksonville.

    The Westside is home to Paxon School for Advanced Studies, which happens to be one of the top schools in the nation by academics since 2003. The Westside is also home to some of the most culturally diverse schools in Duval County to date.


    One of the newest and largest neighborhoods on Jacksonville’s Westside, and occupying a large area of former ranchland, Argyle has grown rapidly from its beginnings in the mid-1980s. Straddling the Duval/Clay county line, Argyle was originally accessible only from Blanding Boulevard in Orange Park. However, as it has expanded westward, Argyle is now connected to Jacksonville’s far-Westside by a number of roads, including the Brannan Field-Chaffee Road corridor that links I-10 directly with Middleburg. Argyle remains a popular choice for middle-class families that are recently settling in Jacksonville.


    Historic Avondale lies along the St. John’s River southwest of the Riverside area, some three to four miles (6 km) upriver from downtown Jacksonville. Avondale is known for its quiet, tree-lined residential streets and hundreds of quaint homes, most dating from the early 1920s during the Great Florida Land Boom. A few Avondale homes pre-date 1900. Most homes in the neighborhood reflect the middle to upper income taste in residential architecture of the 1920s, including numerous Prairie School, Art Deco, Craftsman Style, Classical Revival, and Mediterranean Revival styles. Avondale is characterized by numerous bungalows and spacious, graceful homes. Unlike some other neighborhoods, Avondale never experienced a period of decline during the latter 20th Century, and retains much of its original gentility.

    Two-lane St. John’s Avenue is the key traffic artery through Avondale, and is the location of the Avondale Shops, a small but vibrant collection of specialty shops, clothing stores, cafes, and upscale restaurants, most of which are located in original 1920s structures.

    The Avondale Historic District is a U.S. historic district in Jacksonville, Florida. It is bounded by Roosevelt Boulevard, Belvedere Avenue, Seminole Road, the St. Johns River, and Talbot Avenue, encompasses approximately 2730 acres, and contains 729 historic buildings. On July 6, 1989, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

    Cedar Hills

    Cedar Hills lies along the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), on the opposite shore from Lake Shore, and stretches from Blanding Boulevard on the east to Lane Avenue to the west. Built in the 1940s, Cedar Hills consists of some 3,000 single-family brick or concrete block homes in seven different residential neighborhoods that are anchored by the Cedar Hills Shopping Center business district. Most of the homes are modest, although many of the homes along the shore of the Cedar River have been greatly expanded, or replaced with much larger homes.

    Confederate Point

    Built in the 1960s on reclaimed lowlands, technically a small island surrounded by a moat, with one small bridge as access. Confederate Point lies along the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), on the opposite shore from Lake Shore. Confederate Point stretches from the Ortega River to the east, to Blanding Boulevard on the West, and is bordered by the Cedar River to the North, and Timaquana Boulevard to the South. The area consists of approximately 300 large, single family homes, and approximately 700 condos and apartments that line the south bank of the Cedar River. All of the single family homes are inland, with the apartments and condos lining the shore of the Cedar River. The area is popular given that it is close to water, and Downtown, yet also exclusive in that there is only one road in or out.

     Lake Shore

    Built during the time of the first World War, Lake Shore lies on the curving north bank of the Cedar River (called Cedar Creek by the locals), and stretches from Roosevelt Boulevard on the east, to the Cedar River to the West, and is bordered by the Cedar River to the South, and Park Street to the North, and is bisected by Cassat Avenue. Lake Shore consists of approximately 1,000 modest, wood-frame, concrete block or brick homes, with the exception of approximately 80 quite large estates that line the shore of the Cedar River. The neighborhood is anchored by the Roosevelt Plaza on Roosevelt Boulevard, and the Lake Shore business district of stores up and down Cassat Avenue. Lake Shore is centrally located on the Westside, with quick access to Downtown Jacksonville via Roosevelt Boulevard. Given the small size of the existing homes, the current trend is for first time home buyers to renovate and retrofit these well built homes to fit today’s needs. This is a very well maintained pocket of 1940s and 1950s homes. There is a definite trend to renovate and revitalize this quiet, comfortable neighborhood.


    Marietta is one of the small farming communities that was absorbed during the 1968 consolidation of Jacksonville with Duval County. Though technically a part of the city proper today, much of Marietta still retains its small-town, and even rural “feel”, with some old-style farms and ranches, and most homes occupying lots of 10 acres (40,000 m2) or more, on which they keep horses and cattle, or raise grain and maintain orchards. Marietta is popular with old Southern families, and new families who moved to Jacksonville from mid-western agricultural states. Companies looking for more space have also found Marietta. The area west of Marietta and east of Whitehouse along Beaver Street is now home to the Publix warehouse, Michael’s warehouse and the Winn-Dixie distribution center.


    Outside of what would eventually become Jacksonville, and originally called “Hogan Settlement”, The Normandy area was settled by Jacksonville’s “Founding Family”, the “Hogan’s” who were the first white settlers in Duval County. The Normandy area is a large swath of forested high-ground that straddles both sides of Normandy Boulevard, and stretches from Cassat Avenue on the East, out to Herlong Airfield on the West, and is bordered by I-10 to the North, and Wilson Road to the South. Though originally populated by the large ranches of many of Duval County’s founding families such as the Hogans, Lindseys, Fourakers, and the Herlongs, the area is now a bedroom community, containing over a dozen large residential neighborhoods such as Normandy, Normandy Village, Rolling Hills, Country Creek, Crystal Springs, Hyde Grove, Hyde Park, etc, with very few apartment complexes or condo developments. These neighborhoods have their own sewer and water plants, and unlike most wood-constructed homes in Jacksonville’s newer neighborhoods, most homes in the Normandy area are constructed of brick, or concrete block. The area is home to some of the city’s best schools, and parks. Unlike other sections of the city, where people tend to move from home to home every 2 or 3 years; homes in the Normandy area are routinely transferred from generation to generation, and it is not unusual for great-grandchildren to live in homes originally built by their great-grandparents.[6].


    Historic Ortega lies on the St Johns River just south of the historic Riverside area. Ortega is bordered by the St. Johns River on the East, the Cedar River on the North, and the Ortega river on the West, practically making it an “inland island.” The history of the area includes a number of interesting characters: botanist William Bartram; highwayman and cattle rustler Daniel McGirtt; and Don Juan McQueen, who attempted to establish a plantation on his 1791 Ortega land grant, but was forced to leave due to attacks of Georgians and the French. Gangster George “Machine Gun” Kelly and his wife were rumored to be the mysterious couple who abruptly left their rented Grand Avenue home hours before a midnight police raid in 1933. Ortega is home to hundreds of mid-size to large, turn-of-the-century homes and Southern Style mansions. Many of these homes are situated directly on the river, and the nature of the “island” allows ease of access to the waterways for all residents. Along with Avondale and Riverside, Ortega is home to some of the wealthiest of Jacksonville families. It is marked by a distinctly traditional Southern culture complete with one of the South’s most exclusive debutante coiteries. The island is almost exclusively residential, the only exception being a small square in the section known as “Old Ortega” on the northern end where a small collection of restaurants, boutiques, and a pharmacy are found. Ortega, with its giant oaks, waterfront mansions, and series of parks is widely considered one of the most beautiful residential areas of Northeast Florida.


    Platted in the 1920s and 30’s, the Paxon area is one of the oldest, pre-platted neighborhoods in Jacksonville. Built due to the redistribution of housing after the Great Fire, the Paxon area replaced the many thousands of homes that were destroyed in the Great Fire with thousands of modest, wood-framed homes. The Paxon area was extensively well-planned with its own schools (originally known as Paxon Sr. High School and Paxon Jr. High School, along with a half-dozen small elementary schools). The area straddles Edgewood Avenue South, and stretches from Mcduff Avenue to the East, and I-295 to the West, and is bordered by I-10 to the South, and I-295 to the North. The area originally contained over 40,000 single family homes in over 15 different residential neighborhoods, all anchored by the Edgewood Avenue, and Beaver Street business districts. However, over time, the area declined due to the small average size of the homes, and many of those homes were destroyed, and replaced with warehouses and mixed industry. Despite the new industrialization of the area overall, there are still many thousands of occupied homes in the Paxon area. Paxon Senior High School has been converted into a magnet school—it is now known as Paxon School for Advanced Studies—which has been listed by Forbes Magazine as one of the top three high schools in the United States for the last four years.[citation needed]



    The community of Whitehouse was originally founded due to its close proximity to NAS Cecil Field, with most residents being active Navy personnel or civilian employees at the facility. When the federal government closed Cecil Field in 1999, the leaving military workers were replaced by civilian workers at the Cecil Commerce Center. The area east of Whitehouse along Beaver Street is now home to the Publix warehouse, Michael’s warehouse and the Winn-Dixie distribution center, which provide additional employment nearby.

     Northwest Jacksonville

    A less developed section of Jacksonville, it is primarily commercial/industrial around Interstate 295 and rural residential in most areas. Neighborhoods include: Allendale, Biltmore, Bulls Bay, Carver Manor, Cisco Gardens, College Gardens, Commonwealth, Edgewood, Edgewood Manor, Grand Park, Harborview, Lackawanna, Lake Forrest, Lake Forrest Hills, Lincoln Hills, Magnolia Gardens, Mixon Town, New Town, Osceola Forrest, Panama Park, Picketville, Ribault, Riverview, Robinsons Addition, Royal Terrace, Sherwood Forrest, Tallulah/North Shore, Woodstock, 45th & Chase.

     Panama Park

    Panama Park was home to two of Jacksonville’s previous mayors, and the founder’s of Duval Spirits, the late J. Baker Bryan and his brother Lon B. Bryan. Oceanway is the home of F. Andy Bryan, Grandson of the late J. Baker Bryan, his great grandson J. Baker Bryan IV, lives in the Orlando area.

     North Shore

    The North Jacksonville neighborhood of North Shore had Main Street as its eastern border from about 35th Street up to Trout River. Panama Park was the adjoining neighborhood to the east, Norwood to the west and Brentwood to the south. The western border was between Norwood Avenue and Pearl Street, with Elwood Avenue as the western border. North Shore from the 1930s through the 1990s was largely a lower middle income neighborhood that included churches, a school (North Shore Elementary), and some small businesses clustered near Pearl and 54th Streets and at Pearl Street and Tallalah Avenue. The churches included: North Jacksonville Baptist Church, North Shore Methodist Church, North Shore Christian Church and an Episcopal Chapel. Two parks provided playgrounds for its children, including Tallulah Park and another park at the foot of Pearl Street on Trout River. For many years, the latter offered a boat ramp and areas for outdoor cooking and Easter Egg hunts. After graduating from North Shore Elementary School, its young people went on to Kirby-Smith Junior High School (grades 8-9) and Andrew Jackson Senior High School (grades 10-12). The City of Jacksonville built Fire Station Number 15 on the corner of Pearl and 54th Streets in the late 1940s, and it was a frequent hangout for the young people who were hoping that a fire call would provide some excitement as the firemen dashed for their gear and headed out on the ancient old pumper with chain-driven wooden wheels. Boy Scout Troop 222, based at the North Shore Christian Church provided life-changing core values and produced over 50 Eagle Scouts during its many years of service to the community.

    Urban core

    The central section of Jacksonville has the following neighborhoods: Brentwood, Brooklyn, Downtown, East Jacksonville, Fairfield, Hogans Creek, LaVilla, Longbranch, Midtown, Mid-Westside, Moncrief, Phoenix, Springfield, Southside, Tallyrand and 29th & Chase.


    LaVilla has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see LaVilla.


    In 1907, the town of South Jacksonville (now the Southside neighborhood) incorporated with a population of some 600. In 1913, 96 South Jacksonville voters approved the issuance of $65,000 in bonds for civic improvements, including a city hall. The building, at 1468 Hendricks Avenue, was completed in 1915 and is one of the few remaining signs that South Jacksonville existed, if only for 25 years. In 1932, the city of Jacksonville annexed the area, and it ceased to exist as a separate government entity.[7]


    Established in 1869, Springfield has a rich history that antedates its inclusion in the municipality of Jacksonville. For more information, see Springfield.



    Nocatee, Florida (pronounced \ˈnäk-ˈā-ˈtē\) is an unincorporated master-planned community in St. Johns County and the extreme southeast corner of Duval County (the city of Jacksonville), Florida, United States.

    Nocatee is an approved Development of Regional Impact (DRI) under Section 380.06 of the Florida Statutes[1]. The mixed used development is situated on approximately 13,323 acres (53.92 km2), which 11,332 acres (45.86 km2) are located in northeastern St. Johns County and approximately 1,991 acres (8.06 km2) are located in southeastern Jacksonville, Florida.

    Why do I need an irrigation system?
    faq.jpgIrrigation systems will keep your lawn beautiful, if properly installed. The use of water hoses to water your lawn and plants can cause water disbursement to be uneven, uncontrollable and unneeded in some places. A properly installed system will supply the lawn and designated areas. With our systems, less water is wasted in the streets and driveways. We offer ease of management; our systems are totally automated, come equipped with rain sensors, have user-friendly controls and are digital and easily upgradeable. What should I look for when trying to determine if I need an irrigation system?
    Some common problems to watch out for are:
    • New home installations where plant maturity was not considered when spacing sprinkler heads
    • Uneven water disbursement
    • Previous installer is unavailable or service department is unreachable or unknown
    • Complicated controls or no knowledge of proper system requirements or operations

    Sprinklers are commonly used in lawn irrigation systems and other planted areas where a spray or mist is desirable. For plants that require uniform coverage of water (grass, ground cover, seeds) a sprinkler system is appropriate.If you are installing lawn sprinkler systems, we carry a variety of adjustable nozzles for Rain Bird sprinkler heads.  Our shrub adapters are perfect for garden sprinklers and shrub zones.

    Combine pop-ups and rotors with electronic controllers (timers), and inline valves to automate your landscape irrigation system. Browse our Sprinkler System Supplies to find sprinkler nozzles, bubblers, swing assemblies, cut-off risers, Marlex 90s, and more.

    Drip irrigation is a watering method which delivers water to plants slowly and right where they need it… at the roots. Where typical pop-up sprinklers spray water into the air and onto plants, drip irrigation systems combine flexible poly drip tubing and drip emitters or “drippers” to both conserve water and save money.

    Drip systems are not affected by wind and will greatly reduce evaporation and runoff common with traditional irrigation systems. Drip irrigation is the perfect solution for raised vegetable garden beds, hanging baskets, and potted plants.

    A Note About Backflow Preventers

    Whether you live in a temperate or a cold climate, you can save yourself a lot of hassle – and make winterization much easier – by insulating your irrigation system’s backflow preventer. In cold climates, occasional late and early season freezes occur and can damage your equipment. Using a small amount of self-sticking foam insulating tape – without blocking the drain outlets or the air vents – should be sufficient. Otherwise, try using some R-11 fiberglass insulation. Wrap it around the backflow preventer, then use duct tape to secure a plastic bag around the whole thing. Don’t secure it too tightly – just tight enough to keep it from blowing off.

    Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 140,814. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county is 184,727 [1]. Its county seat is Green Cove Springs, Florida[1]. Clay County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.


    Clay County was created on December 31, 1858, from a section of Duval County. Its name is in honor of Henry Clay, a famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky, and United States Secretary of State in the 19th century.

    Clay County was once a popular destination for tourists visiting from the northern states. The therapeutic, warm springs and mild climate were major draws for visitors. Steamboats brought them to various hotels in Green Cove Springs – the St. Elmo, Clarendon and the Oakland. President Grover Cleveland was the most prominent of such tourists; he had spring water shipped to the White House. Clay County’s popularity among tourists peaked during the last three decades of the 19th century. It was later eclipsed by Henry Flagler’s extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to points south such as Palm Beach and Miami.

    The military has also played an important role in Clay County history. In 1939, Camp Blanding opened on Kingsley Lake in central Clay County. The Florida National Guard developed this 28,000 acre (113 km²) complex. During World War II, it trained over 90,000 troops and became the fourth largest ‘city’ in the state. In Green Cove Springs, Lee Field was a flight training center. After World War II, Lee Field became a base for the mothball fleet. Although Lee Field closed in the early 1960s, Camp Blanding continues to operate today. Clay County is also a popular choice of residence for military personnel who are stationed on bases in nearby Duval County (NAS Jacksonville, NS Mayport).


    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 644 square miles (1,667 km²), of which, 601 square miles (1,557 km²) of it is land and 43 square miles (110 km²) of it (6.62%) is water.

     Adjacent counties

    Baker County Duval County  
    Bradford County North St. Johns County
    West   Clay County, Florida    East
      Putnam County  


    As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 140,814 people, 50,243 households, and 39,390 families residing in the county. The population density was 234 people per square mile (90/km²). There were 53,748 housing units at an average density of 89 per square mile (35/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 87.44% White, 6.70% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.99% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.31% from other races, and 2.01% from two or more races. 4.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

    There were 50,243 households out of which 39.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.80% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.60% were non-families. 16.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.11.

    In the county the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, and 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males.

    The median income for a household in the county was $48,854, and the median income for a family was $53,814. Males had a median income of $36,683 versus $25,488 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,868. About 5.10% of families and 6.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over.

    According to the Florida Times-Union, in October 2004, there were 106,114 registered voters in Clay County.

    Baker County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 22,259. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county is 26,164 [1]. Its county seat is Macclenny, Florida[1]. While primarily rural, the county is included in the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area.


    Baker County was founded in 1861. It was named for James McNair Baker, a judge and Confederate Senator. In 1864 the Battle of Olustee, which as the only major American Civil War in Florida, was fought near Lake City, Florida in Baker County. [2]


    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 589 square miles (1,525 km²), of which, 585 square miles (1,516 km²) of it is land and 4 square miles (10 km²) of it (0.62%) is water. The extreme northern part of the county lies within the Okefenokee Swamp and its federally protected areas.

    Adjacent counties

     National protected areas


    As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 22,259 people, 7,043 households, and 5,599 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile (15/km²). There were 7,592 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.04% White, 13.92% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. 1.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.5% were of American, 9.9% Irish, 8.6% English and 6.6% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.2% spoke English and 2.5% Spanish as their first language.

    There were 7,043 households out of which 41.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.50% were non-families. 17.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.20.

    In the county the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 9.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 110.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.40 males.

    The median income for a household in the county was $40,035, and the median income for a family was $43,503. Males had a median income of $30,240 versus $21,279 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,164. About 11.40% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.



    1. Town of Glen St. Mary
    2. City of Macclenny


    Like much of rural northern Florida, Baker County votes heavily Republican in presidential and congressional races, although still occasionally supporting Conservative Democrats in local and state contests. In the 2004 election Baker County and Okaloosa County were the most conservative-voting counties in Florida.

    Duval County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 778,879. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county was 826,436.[1] Its county seat is Jacksonville.[2]


    Duval County was created in 1822 from St. Johns County. It was named for William Pope DuVal, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834. When Duval County was created, it covered a massive area, from the Suwannee River on the west to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, north of a line from the mouth of the Suwannee River to Jacksonville on the St. Johns River. Alachua and Nassau counties were created out of parts of Duval County in 1824. Clay County was created from part of Duval County in 1858. Part of St. Johns County south and east of the lower reaches of the St. Johns River was transferred to Duval County in the 1840s.[3]

    On October 1, 1968, the government of Duval County was consolidated with the government of the city of Jacksonville, although the Duval County cities of Atlantic Beach, Baldwin, Jacksonville Beach, and Neptune Beach are not included in the corporate limits of Jacksonville, and maintain their own municipal governments.


    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 918 square miles (2,378 km²), of which, 774 square miles (2,004 km²) of it is land and 145 square miles (374 km²) of it is water, much of it in the Atlantic Ocean. The total area is 15.74% water. The topography is coastal plain; however there are some rolling hills.

     Cities and towns

    Adjacent counties

      Nassau County  
    Baker County North Atlantic Ocean
    West   Duval County, Florida    East
    Clay County   St. Johns County


    Historical populations
    Census Pop.    %±
    1830 1,970  
    1840 4,156   111.0%
    1850 4,539   9.2%
    1860 5,074   11.8%
    1870 11,921   134.9%
    1880 19,431   63.0%
    1890 26,800   37.9%
    1900 39,733   48.3%
    1910 75,163   89.2%
    1920 113,540   51.1%
    1930 155,503   37.0%
    1940 210,143   35.1%
    1950 304,029   44.7%
    1960 455,411   49.8%
    1970 528,865   16.1%
    1980 571,003   8.0%
    1990 672,971   17.9%
    2000 778,879   15.7%

    As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 778,879 people, 303,747 households, and 201,688 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,007 people per square mile (389/km²). There were 329,778 housing units at an average density of 426 per square mile (165/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 65.80% White, 27.83% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 2.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.31% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. 4.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 90.7% spoke English, 4.1% Spanish and 1.0% Tagalog as their first language.

    There were 303,747 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.60% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.06.

    In the county the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, and 10.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males.

    The median income for a household in the county was $40,703, and the median income for a family was $47,689. Males had a median income of $32,954 versus $26,015 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,753. About 9.20% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.40% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over.

    Nassau County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 57,663. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county was 69,835.[1] Its county seat is Fernandina Beach, Florida.[2]

    Nassau County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.

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    A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure. Pumps alone do not create pressure; they only displace fluid, causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. Pumps fall into five major groups: direct lift, displacement, velocity, buoyancy and gravity pumps.[1] Their names describe the method for moving a fluid.


     Displacement pumps

    A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid:

    Positive displacement rotary pumps are pumps that move fluid using the principles of rotation. The vacuum created by the rotation of the pump captures and draws in the liquid. Rotary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines, eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually. Positive displacement rotary pumps also have their weaknesses. Because of the nature of the pump, the clearance between the rotating pump and the outer edge must be very close, requiring that the pumps rotate at a slow, steady speed. If rotary pumps are operated at high speeds, the fluids will cause erosion, much as ocean waves polish stones or erode rock into sand. Rotary pumps that experience such erosion eventually show signs of enlarged clearances, which allow liquid to slip through and detract from the efficiency of the pump. Positive displacement rotary pumps can be grouped into three main types. Gear pumps are the simplest type of rotary pumps, consisting of two gears laid out side-by-side with their teeth enmeshed. The gears turn away from each other, creating a current that traps fluid between the teeth on the gears and the outer casing, eventually releasing the fluid on the discharge side of the pump as the teeth mesh and go around again. Many small teeth maintain a constant flow of fluid, while fewer, larger teeth create a tendency for the pump to discharge fluids in short, pulsing gushes. Screw pumps are a more complicated type of rotary pumps, featuring two screws with opposing thread —- that is, one screw turns clockwise, and the other counterclockwise. The screws are each mounted on shafts that run parallel to each other; the shafts also have gears on them that mesh with each other in order to turn the shafts together and keep everything in place. The turning of the screws, and consequently the shafts to which they are mounted, draws the fluid through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the clearance between moving parts and the pump’s casing is minimal. Moving vane pumps are the third type of rotary pumps, consisting of a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing. As the rotor turns, the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing, drawing the fluid through the pump.

    Positive Displacement Pumps has an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is constant given each cycle of operation.

    The positive displacement pumps can be divided into two main classes

    • reciprocating
    • rotary

    The positive displacement principle applies whether the pump is a

    • rotary lobe pump
    • progressing cavity pump
    • rotary gear pump
    • piston pump
    • diaphragm pump
    • screw pump
    • gear pump
    • Hydraulic pump
    • vane pump
    • regenerative (peripheral) pump
    • peristaltic

    Positive Displacement Pumps, unlike Centrifugal or Roto-dynamic Pumps, will produce the same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter the discharge pressure.

    • Positive Displacement Pumps are “constant flow machines”

    A Positive Displacement Pump must not be operated against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump because it has no shut-off head like Centrifugal Pumps. A Positive Displacement Pump operating against a closed discharge valve, will continue to produce flow until the pressure in the discharge line are increased until the line bursts or the pump is severely damaged – or both.

    A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the Positive Displacement Pump is therefore absolutely necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external. The pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. The internal valve should in general only be used as a safety precaution, an external relief valve installed in the discharge line with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank is recommended.

    Reciprocating Pumps

    Typical reciprocating pumps are

    • plunger pumps
    • diaphragm pumps

    A plunger pump consists of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger in it. The suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder. In the suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into the cylinder. In the forward stroke the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve.

    With only one cylinder the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger moves through the middle positions, and zero flow when the plunger is at the end positions. A lot of energy is wasted when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. Vibration and “water hammer” may be a serious problem. In general the problems are compensated for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each other.

    In diaphragm pumps, the plunger pressurizes hydraulic oil which is used to flex a diaphragm in the pumping cylinder. Diaphragm valves are used to pump hazardous and toxic fluids.

    Gear pump

    This uses two meshed gears rotating in a closely fitted casing. Fluid is pumped around the outer periphery by being trapped in the tooth spaces. It does not travel back on the meshed part, since the teeth mesh closely in the centre. Widely used on car engine oil pumps. Progressing cavity pump

    Widely used for pumping difficult materials such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles, this pump consists of a helical shaped rotor, about 10 times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a central core of diameter x, with typically a curved spiral wound around of thickness half x, although of course in reality it is made from one casting. This shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve, of wall thickness typically x also. As the shaft rotates, fluid is gradually forced up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can develop very high pressure at quite low volumes.

    Roots-type pumps

    The low pulsation rate and gentle performance of this Roots-type positive displacement pump is achieved due to a combination of its two 90° helical twisted rotors, and a triangular shaped sealing line configuration, both at the point of suction and at the point of discharge. This design produces a continuous and non-vorticuless flow with equal volume. High capacity industrial “air compressors” have been designed to employ this principle, as well as most “superchargers” used on internal combustion engines, and even a brand of civil defense siren

    Peristaltic pump

    A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for pumping a variety of fluids. The fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing (though linear peristaltic pumps have been made). A rotor with a number of “rollers”, “shoes” or “wipers” attached to the external circumference compresses the flexible tube. As the rotor turns, the part of the tube under compression closes (or “occludes”) thus forcing the fluid to be pumped to move through the tube. Additionally, as the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam (“restitution”) fluid flow is induced to the pump. This process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such as the gastrointestinal tract.

     Reciprocating-type pumps

    Main article: Reciprocating pump

    Reciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more oscillating pistons, plungers or membranes (diaphragms).

    Reciprocating-type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to ensure that the fluid moves in a positive direction. Pumps in this category range from having “simplex” one cylinder, to in some cases “quad” four cylinders or more. Most reciprocating-type pumps are “duplex” (two) or “triplex” (three) cylinder. Furthermore, they can be either “single acting” independent suction and discharge strokes or “double acting” suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps can be powered by air, steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (19th century) as boiler feed water pumps. Though still used today, reciprocating pumps are typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils and special applications demanding low flow rates against high resistance.

     Buoyancy pump

     Compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps

    One modern application of positive displacement diaphragm pumps is compressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps. Run on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design, although all manufacturers offer ATEX certified models to comply with industry regulation. Commonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to processing,  They are relatively inexpensive and can be used for almost any duty from pumping water out of bunds, to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependent on how the pump is manufactured – elastomers / body construction). Lift is normally limited to roughly 6m although heads can reach almost 200 Psi

     Impulse pumps

    Hydraulic ram pumps

    A hydraulic ram is a water pump powered by hydropower.

    It functions as a hydraulic transformer that takes in water at one “hydraulic head” (pressure) and flow-rate, and outputs water at a higher hydraulic-head and lower flow-rate. The device utilizes the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started.

    The hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas, where there is both a source of low-head hydropower, and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source. In this situation, the ram is often useful, since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.

     Velocity pumps

    Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity. This increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy (pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. This conversion of kinetic energy to pressure can be explained by the First law of thermodynamics or more specifically by Bernoulli’s principle. Dynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain is achieved.

    These types of pumps have a number of characteristics:

    1. Continuous energy
    2. Conversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity)
    3. Conversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head

    One practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is their ability to operate under closed valve conditions. Positive displacement pumps physically displace the fluid; hence closing a valve downstream of a positive displacement pump will result in a continual build up in pressure resulting in mechanical failure of either pipeline or pump. Dynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve conditions (for short periods of time).

     Centrifugal pump

    Main article: Centrifugal pump

    A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flowrate of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward or axially into a diffuser or volute chamber, from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads.

    The screw centrifugal impeller was invented in 1960 by the late Martin Stähle, the founder of Hidrostal AG. He had received an order from the Amial S.A. fish processing factory in Chimbote (Peru) for the development of a system for transporting fish from the nets into a boat, and from the boat into the fish processing plant. The pump was to work reliably without damaging the fish. The result was the pump with the characteristic screw centrifugal impeller. This invention was a great success. It has since been used in many ways throughout the world in countless other fluid handling systems.

    The screw centrifugal pump is a popular choice for handling delicate products such as food and crystals. Its low shear characteristic reduces emulsification when pumping mixtures making it ideal for pumping oily water and Return Activated Sludge [RAS] as it does not damage the floc. The pump’s ability to pass long fibrous materials such as rope without clogging makes it a frequent choice for municipal waste water applications. A screw centrifugal pump typically has an operating efficiency of 70% to 85%. It has a relatively steeply rising head/capacity curve shape giving it good flow control capability over its allowable operating range

    The impeller has a single blade, axially extended at the inlet and developed around its axis much like a corkscrew. Linking this to a centrifugal outlet allows pumping with the minimum of agitation and shear, essential factors when product bruising, liquid emulsification or clogging is to be avoided.

    The screw centrifugal impeller features:

    • Large free passages for pumping liquid with solid objects and fibrous materials
    • Able to pump liquids and viscosity’s above values normally possible with conventional centrifugal pumps
    • Steep H/Q curves with closed valve twice best efficiency point
    • Low NPSH characteristics
    • Flat non-overloading power curves
    • High hydraulic efficiencies

    Screw centrifugal impeller pumps are widely accepted as state of the art pumps for handling raw sewage and sludges on treatment plants and incorporate many features, which benefits the end user. Screw centrifugal impeller pumps are ideal for handling raw sewage, which contains stringy fibrous material and for handling sewage sludge with up to 10% dry solids content. Typical application areas:

    • Sump emptying
    • Industrial effluent treatment
    • Feeding oily water separators
    • Transfer of ‘live’ fish
    • Oil and Chemical spillages
    • Mine Drainage
    • Processing of waste oils & sludges
    • Transfer of fruit and vegetables
    • Municipal waste water treatment plants

    Centrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial flow type. However, the term “centrifugal pump” can be used to describe all impeller type rotodynamic pumps[2] including the radial, axial and mixed flow variations.

     Radial flow pumps

    Often simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. The fluid enters along the axial plane, is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radially). Radial flow pumps operate at higher pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed flow pumps.

     Axial flow pumps

    Main article: Axial flow pump

    Axial flow pumps differ from radial flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the same direction parallel to the rotating shaft. The fluid is not accelerated but instead “lifted” by the action of the impeller. They may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube. Axial flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial flow pumps.

     Mixed flow pumps

    Mixed flow pumps, as the name suggests, function as a compromise between radial and axial flow pumps, the fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 0-90 degrees from the axial direction. As a consequence mixed flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial flow pumps while delivering higher discharges than radial flow pumps. The exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head-discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed flow.

    Eductor-jet pump

    Main article: Eductor-jet pump

    This uses a jet, often of steam, to create a low pressure. This low pressure sucks in fluid and propels it into a higher pressure region.

    Gravity pumps

    Gravity pumps include the syphon and qanat or foggara.

    Pump Repairs

    Examining pump repair records and MTBF (mean time between failures) is of great importance to responsible and conscientious pump users. In view of that fact, the preface to the 2006 Pump User’s Handbook alludes to “pump failure” statistics. For the sake of convenience, these failure statistics often are translated into MTBF (in this case, installed life before failure).[3]

    In early 2005,  chief engineer for Field Operations in Baton Rouge, LA, examined the repair records for a number of refinery and chemical plants to obtain meaningful reliability data for centrifugal pumps. A total of 15 operating plants having nearly 15,000 pumps were included in the survey. The smallest of these plants had about 100 pumps; several plants had over 2000. All facilities were located in the United States. In addition, all plants had some type of pump reliability program in progress. Some of these programs could be considered as “new,” others as “renewed” and still others as “established.” Many of these plants—but not all—had an alliance arrangement with John Crane. In some cases, the alliance contract included having a   technician or engineer on-site to coordinate various aspects of the program.

    Not all plants are refineries, however, and different results can be expected elsewhere. In chemical plants, pumps have traditionally been “throw-away” items as chemical attack can result in limited life. Things have improved in recent years, but the somewhat restricted space available in “old” DIN and ASME-standardized stuffing boxes places limits on the type of seal that can be fitted. Unless the pump user upgrades the seal chamber, only the more compact and simple versions can be accommodated. Without this upgrading, lifetimes in chemical installations are generally believed to be around 50 to 60 percent of the refinery values.

    It goes without saying that unscheduled maintenance often is one of the most significant costs of ownership, and failures of mechanical seals and bearings are among the major causes. Keep in mind the potential value of selecting pumps that cost more initially, but last much longer between repairs. The MTBF of a better pump may be one to four years longer than that of its non-upgraded counterpart. Consider that published average values of avoided pump failures range from $2600 to $12,000. This does not include lost opportunity costs. One pump fire occurs per 1000 failures. Having fewer pump failures means having fewer destructive pump fires.

    As has been noted, a typical pump failure based on actual year 2002 reports, costs $5,000 on average. This includes costs for material, parts, labor and overhead. Let us now assume that the MTBF for a particular pump is 12 months and that it could be extended to 18 months. This would result in a cost avoidance of $2,500/yr—which is greater than the premium one would pay for the reliability-upgraded centrifugal pump.[3][4][5]


    Pumps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. Early applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. Today, the pump is used for irrigation, water supply, gasoline supply, air conditioning systems, refrigeration (usually called a compressor), chemical movement, sewage movement, flood control, marine services, etc.

    Because of the wide variety of applications, pumps have a plethora of shapes and sizes: from very large to very small, from handling gas to handling liquid, from high pressure to low pressure, and from high volume to low volume.

    Liquid and slurry pumps can lose prime and this will require the pump to be primed by adding liquid to the pump and inlet pipes to get the pump started. Loss of “prime” is usually due to ingestion of air into the pump. The clearances and displacement ratios in pumps used for liquids and other more viscus fluids cannot displace the air due to its lower density.

    Pumps as public water supplies

    One sort of pump once common worldwide was a hand-powered water pump over a water well where people could work it to extract water, before most houses had individual water supplies.

    From this came the expression “parish pump” for “the sort of matter chattered about by people when they meet when they go to get water”, “matter of only local interest”. However water from pitcher pumps are more prone to contamination since it is drawn directly from the soil and does not undergo filtration, this might cause gastrointestinal related diseases.

    Today, hand operated village pumps are considered the most sustainable low cost option for safe water supply in resource poor settings, often in rural areas in developing countries. A hand pump opens access to deeper groundwater that is often not polluted and also improves the safety of a well by protecting the water source from contaminated buckets. Pumps like the Afridev pump are designed to be cheap to build and install, and easy to maintain with simple parts. However, scarcity of spare parts for these type of pumps in some regions of Africa has diminished their utility for these areas

    Sealing Multiphase Pumping Applications

    Multiphase pumping applications, also referred to as tri-phase, have grown due to increased oil drilling activity. In addition, the economics of multiphase production is attractive to upstream operations as it leads to simpler, smaller in-field installations, reduced equipment costs and improved production rates. In essence, the multiphase pump can accommodate all fluid stream properties with one piece of equipment, which has a smaller footprint. Often, two smaller multiphase pumps are installed in series rather than having just one massive pump.

    For midstream and upstream operations, multiphase pumps can be located onshore or offshore and can be connected to single or multiple wellheads. Basically, multiphase pumps are used to transport the untreated flow stream produced from oil wells to downstream processes or gathering facilities. This means that the pump may handle a flow stream (well stream) from 100 percent gas to 100 percent liquid and every imaginable combination in between. The flow stream can also contain abrasives such as sand and dirt. Multiphase pumps are designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. Multiphase pumping also helps eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases as operators strive to minimize the flaring of gas and the venting of tanks where possible.[7]

     Types and Features of Multiphase Pumps

    Helico-Axial Pumps (Centrifugal) A rotodynamic pump with one single shaft requiring two mechanical seals. This pump utilizes an open-type axial impeller. This pump type is often referred to as a “Poseidon Pump” and can be described as a cross between an axial compressor and a centrifugal pump.

    Twin Screw (Positive Displacement) The twin screw pump is constructed of two intermeshing screws that force the movement of the pumped fluid. Twin screw pumps are often used when pumping conditions contain high gas volume fractions and fluctuating inlet conditions. Four mechanical seals are required to seal the two shafts.

    Progressive Cavity Pumps (Positive Displacement) Progressive cavity pumps are single-screw types typically used in shallow wells or at the surface. This pump is mainly used on surface applications where the pumped fluid may contain a considerable amount of solids such as sand and dirt.

    Electric Submersible Pumps (Centrifugal) These pumps are basically multistage centrifugal pumps and are widely used in oil well applications as a method for artificial lift. These pumps are usually specified when the pumped fluid is mainly liquid.

    Buffer Tank A buffer tank is often installed upstream of the pump suction nozzle in case of a slug flow. The buffer tank breaks the energy of the liquid slug, smoothes any fluctuations in the incoming flow and acts as a sand trap.

    As the name indicates, multiphase pumps and their mechanical seals can encounter a large variation in service conditions such as changing process fluid composition, temperature variations, high and low operating pressures and exposure to abrasive/erosive media. The challenge is selecting the appropriate mechanical seal arrangement and support system to ensure maximized seal life and its overall effectiveness.[7][8][9]


    Pumps are commonly rated by horsepower, flow rate, outlet pressure in feet (or metres) of head, inlet suction in suction feet (or metres) of head. The head can be simplified as the number of feet or metres the pump can raise or lower a column of water at atmospheric pressure.

    From an initial design point of view, engineers often use a quantity termed the specific speed to identify the most suitable pump type for a particular combination of flow rate and head.

     Pumping power

    The power added to the fluid flow by the pump (Po), is defined using SI units by:

     P_o=\rho\ g\ H\ Q


    Po is the output power of the pump (W)
    ρ is the fluid density (kg/m3)
    g is the gravitational constant (9.81 m/s2)
    H is the energy Head added to the flow (m)
    Q is the flow rate (m3/s)

    Power is more commonly expressed as kW (103 W) or horsepower (multiply kW by 0.746), H is equivalent to the pressure head added by the pump when the suction and discharge pipes are of the same diameter. The power required to drive the pump is determined by dividing the output power by the pump efficiency

    Power needed to pump a given flow against a given head and pipe size, can be calculated using this spread sheet.[10]

    Various aspects of pumping energy usage are covered in “Energy Efficiency in Pumping”.[11] Energy is consumed by the pump, and also lost in the pipework and these must be considered.

    Pump efficiency

    Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power imparted on the fluid by the pump in relation to the power supplied to drive the pump. Its value is not fixed for a given pump, efficiency is a function of the discharge and therefore also operating head. For centrifugal pumps, the efficiency tends to increase with flow rate up to a point midway through the operating range (peak efficiency) and then declines as flow rates rise further. Pump performance data such as this is usually supplied by the manufacturer before pump selection. Pump efficiencies tend to decline over time due to wear (e.g. increasing tolerances and impellers reducing in size).

    One important part of system design involves matching the pipeline headloss-flow characteristic with the appropriate pump or pumps which will operate at or close to the point of maximum efficiency. There are free tools that help calculate head needed and show pump curves including their Best Efficiency Points (BEP).[12]

    Pump efficiency is an important aspect and pumps should be regularly tested. Thermodynamic pump testing is one method.