carpetgrasses (Axonopus affinis and Axonopus compressus)

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Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266

St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144

Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444

Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969

Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040

Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091

Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290

Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911

Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266

EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here)

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Four warm-season grasses, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass are grown widely. Usually one will provide adequate turf for almost any situation in warm and subtropical areas, given adequate water and not too much shade. The altenatives (centipedegrass, buffalograss and others) do well in particular niches. For example, centipedegrass performs well in Florida’s Panhandle, probably because of the unique heavier soil type there. Buffalograss performs well in the mountains and deserts of western North America, even as far as Canada.

First, what is a grass? A grass is a plant with specialized reduced flower parts. There are 10,000 grass species in the world. The most important ones feed us, wheat and rice, for example. Grasses are used for heavy construction, for example, bamboo, a grass. Grasses are used for ornamental purposes, as well as utility. For a systematic view of the grasses, visit the links on grasses in the Open Directory Project.

ASAP IRRIGATION REPAIRS AND NEW INSTALLATION SYSTEMS

ASAP DRAINAGE CONTROL AND PUMPING SYSTEMS

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Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266

St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144

Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444

Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969

Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040

Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091

Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290

Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911

Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266

EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here)

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However, the promotion of this grass as an environmentally-friendly grass to an international audience raises concerns for the integrity of indigenous saline communities around the world.

Already widespread in many countries, P. vaginatum is recognised for its competitive nature with indigenous plant species in saline and saltpan areas, particularly where there is not an equivalent indigenous grass species already inhabiting that niche. It has the ability to outcompete, and exclude indigenous plants, and occupy spaces for which there is no indigenous vegetation (see photo). This has far-reaching effects, for which in New Zealand are similar to that of the introduced Spartina spp. and include the following:
Tairua
Paspalum vaginatum invading and plugging up the coastal estuary of the Tairua River, on the coast of the rugged, bush-clad Coromandel Peninsula of the North Island, New Zealand.

* Out-competes native estuarine plant species changing the composition and structure of the natural vegetation associations, and endangers threatened species populations
* Has a high stem and root density which excludes burrowing fauna, such as cockles (Austrovenus stuchburyi)
* Reduces access to the food of birds and fish
* Alters fish spawning grounds (eg., flounder), and bird roosting sites
* Increases cover for the predators of estuarine-feeding birds, changing the behaviour of these birds
* Alters the estuarine hydrology patterns from the accumulation of sediments (and the associated ramifications of this, eg. increased flooding upstream which leads to further deposition of fine silts in the estuary which may be to the detriment of filter-feeding shellfish and the growth of indigenous estuarine vegetation)
* Changes the nutrient regime of the estuary with the contribution of organic detritus

These combined ecological effects lead to the cultural, recreational, and aesthetic values that people hold for these estuaries
being compromised. There is also an economic value in estuaries in their role as sea-fish nursery grounds which is also
compromised.

Therefore, the promotion of P. vaginatum in areas other than where it naturally occurs (ie., Central America) will lead to values
similar to those outlined above being compromised. I stongly appeal to you to mention these ecological effects of P. vaginatum on
your web page so that turf managers can make a more informed decision about introducing this grass to new environments

Paspalum vaginatum before and after
BEFORE AND AFTER:
Please pass your mouse over the image.
Paspalum vaginatum grow-in 23 September 1999 compared with 10 September 1999.

Paspalum vaginatum is a warm season turfgrass that has been overlooked for far too long. It has been around, but has yet to gain it’s place in the turfgrass industry. New research led by several universities and the increasing use of Paspalum vaginatum will bring this grass to a place of prominence.

Paspalum vaginatum is also referred to as Seashore Paspalum, Siltgrass, Sheathed Paspalum, Salt Jointgrass, Seaside Millet, Sand Knotgrass, and Saltwater Couch. It is native to East Central South America, from Argentina through Uruguay and into Brazil. Today, Paspalum grows in tropical areas throughout the world. Paspalum is being maintained on golf courses in Asia, South Africa, South America, Hawaii, the Caribbean Islands, and in the United States. Right now, Paspalum has sort of filled a niche in America. Only courses close to the oceans, where saltwater and saltspray is a problem have utilized this grass.

ASAP IRRIGATION REPAIRS AND NEW INSTALLATION SYSTEMS

ASAP DRAINAGE CONTROL AND PUMPING SYSTEMS

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Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266

St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144

Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444

Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969

Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040

Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091

Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290

Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911

Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266

EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here)

FREE ESTIMATES

Tropical signalgrass, Urochloa subquadripara, (syn. Brachiaria subquadripara, Bayer code BRASU, also called smallflowered Alexandergrass), is the most serious weed in south Florida St. Augustinegrass, Stenotaphrum secundatum, turf, according to sod producers. It is the second most serious weed in bermudagrass golf turf, based on survey of 236 south Florida superintendents. Though confused with crabgrasses (Digitaria spp.), tropical signalgrass leaves are more shiny and less flexuous.

In new sod fields, tropical signalgrass germinates more rapidly than crabgrasses, remaining appressed to the ground while stolons form. Stolons interweave with cultivated St. Augustinegrass, then grow on top, creating an unsightly appearance. It is killed by frost. Tropical signalgrass fills voids left by other weeds. In a preemergence herbicide experiment, there were more (P < 0.05) tropical signalgrass seedlings in plots treated with atrazine at 1.1 kg ha-1 (90.1 seedlings m-2) than in untreated plots (62.6 seedlings m-2). The most effective preemergence treatments were oxadiazon at 2.3 kg ha-1 and pendimethalin at 3.4 kg ha-1 applied 8 days after plug planting, providing early postemergence control of 2-leaf seedlings. The most effective management of tropical signalgrass was preemergence herbicide and early, 25-30 days postplanting, applications of asulam at 1.2 kg ha-1. Seedling numbers were reduced by 90-95%, but hand hoeing and spot treatment were still required. ASAP IRRIGATION REPAIRS AND NEW INSTALLATION SYSTEMS ASAP DRAINAGE CONTROL AND PUMPING SYSTEMS STATE CERTIFIED CONTRACTOR FREE ESTIMATES Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266 St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144 Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444 Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969 Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040 Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091 Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290 Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911 Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266 EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here) FREE ESTIMATES A widely used groundcover, Wedelia has become a weed problem in many lawns. A member of the Compositae or sunflower family, Wedelia is a soil creeper. It spreads vegetatively, rooting at the nodes, and forms a thick carpet. It's Latin name Wedelia trilobata is based on the lobed appearance of individual leaves. It's fairly common in Florida, and there is even a Wedelia Drive, in Barefoot Bay, Florida. In its pure form, Wedelia is attractive. To be more specific, I consider it attractive. Remember, what one person considers a flower is a weed to someone else. Wedelia has orangish flowers that can easily be mistaken for beach sunflower, another creeper. Unlike beach sunflower, a native which confines itself to natural areas, Wedelia is an introduction from tropical America, and it grows primarily in human-created habitats, e.g., the irrigated lawns. That's not to say it will not escape into conservation areas occasionally, and the Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council classified it as a Category II invader in their 1997 plant list (see links, below) and that listing continued through 1999. Removal of Wedelia had been cited in 1996 by Martin County Environmental Planning Department (link broken) as a requirement for implementing a site plan. ASAP IRRIGATION REPAIRS AND NEW INSTALLATION SYSTEMS ASAP DRAINAGE CONTROL AND PUMPING SYSTEMS STATE CERTIFIED CONTRACTOR FREE ESTIMATES Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266 St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144 Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444 Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969 Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040 Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091 Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290 Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911 Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266 EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here) FREE ESTIMATES Scientific name for genus and species, English common name, use, and characteristics of the major turfgrass genera and species. Genus species English common name Use and characteristics Subfamily Pooideae: cool season Agrostis stolonifera creeping bentgrass High density, highest intensity use (putting greens, overseeding); stoloniferous, thus prone to thatch; disease prone. Festuca arundinacea tall fescue Low maintenance bunch grass, competitive for transition zone and southern regions of cool season zone. Considered a lower water use alternative to Kentucky bluegrass. Festuca rubra, etc. fine fescues (creeping red, Chewings); also hard, sheep Low maintenance, high density, nonaggressive grasses for low fertility soils, excellent shade tolerance. Lolium perenne perennial ryegrass Fast establishing bunch species with poor heat tolerance for general use turf, sports turf, overseeding. A companion species, annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum, is often used for quick cover on southeastern U.S. highway rights-of-way, usually during construction. Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass Rhizomatous, long-lived, cold-tolerant, shade-intolerant perennial for general use turf (lawns, fairways). It is the most widely used cool-season turfgrass. Species goes dormant in summer. Mows cleanly. Shallow roots. Poa trivialis Roughstalk bluegrass Stoloniferous, short-lived, shade-tolerant and moisture-tolerant species for use is lawns in temperate areas, and for greens overseeding in warm climates. Subfamily Chloridoideae: warm season, dry climate Buchlo� dactyloides buffalograss Extremely drought avoidant turf for western United States; slow establishment; susceptible to weed invasion. Cynodon dactylon and hybrids common bermudagrass Most rapid growing, highly recuperative warm-season grass for high intensity use (athletic fields, golf courses); suitable for lawns in heavier soils. Interspecific hybrids important. Zoysia japonica Japanese lawngrass Intermediate maintenance intensity grass for use in transition zone and in coastal areas; slow establishment. Other species and their hybrids exist. Subfamily Panicoideae: warm season, moist climate Axonopus affinis carpetgrass Low maintenance, poorly competitive species; prefers wet habitats and heavy soils Eremochloa ophiurioides centipedegrass Low fertility requiring, low growing, hard-to-establish species; grows best on heavy soils (some say acidic). Paspalum notatum bahiagrass Most highly drought avoidant warm-season species; growth is rank and seedy; salt and shade tolerance are poor. Paspalum vaginatum seashore paspalum Most highly salt tolerant warm-season turf species; rhizomatous and densely stoloniferous; low herbicide tolerance. Stenotaphrum secundatum St. Augustinegrass Shade tolerant, coarse-textured stoloniferous species for lawns in Florida and gulf coastal areas; fair wear tolerance; wide range of pH tolerance. ASAP IRRIGATION REPAIRS AND NEW INSTALLATION SYSTEMS ASAP DRAINAGE CONTROL AND PUMPING SYSTEMS STATE CERTIFIED CONTRACTOR FREE ESTIMATES Jacksonville Duval County 904-346-1266 St Augustine St Johns County 904-824-7144 Orange Park Clay County 904-264-6444 Jacksonville Beaches Duval County 904-246-3969 Fernandina Nassau County 904-277-3040 Macclenny Baker County 904-259-5091 Palm Coast Flagler County 386-439-5290 Daytona Volusia County 386-253-4911 Serving all of Florida and Georgia at 904-346-1266 EMAIL LARRY@1STPROP.COM (feel free to email your bidding packages here) FREE ESTIMATES

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